Mayan Tonal Acupressure Course
DNA is influenced by words and frequencies
William Linville on Healing With The Masters
For more information visit the William Linville Video Library
Water has Memory - Scientific Proof from 'Oasis HD' Channel
Cure all Illnesses in 3 minutes - Spread LOVE not HATE
The energy from the dynamic fields comes through your heartspace that you beam to the subject with the intent that the healing has already taken place. You can chant as they show in the video or you can just beam that enegy with the clear intent that the healing is done. Those of you who are taking the course to become a clear portal of energies should watch this video, as the frequencies from the dynamic field of energy never cease to be available to you in your work. They are not miracles, they are the divine right of humans to bring forth the energies from the dynamic fields in space that keep everything alive. As your frequencies change to match the field, your vibrations increase and all energy transmissions are possible. Just keep practicing the beaming of these energies from your heart space in each moment.
Sacred knowledge of vibration and the power of human emotions
Scientists Confirm That Reality is an Illusion - Our 3D Universe Is A Hologram
Michael Talbot. Holographic Universe (WorkShop) 1 hour 52 minutes
Author Michael Talbot presents his seminal 'Holographic Universe' Workshop on September 14, 1991. If you haven't read the book, this audio workshop will open your mind to these principles with exercises that you can try while you listen. I was guided to read this book before my first journey to the Maya lands in 1994, so that I would have a base of knowledge to understand the experiences when reality shifted to the Ancient Times, and Ancient Mayans appeared at the sacred sites, and the stars disappeared from half of the sky divided by a straight line, two nights in a row. The major lesson is that nothing is real in the hologram unless it is observed, and YOU are the OBSERVER.
In Lak'ech, Judith Light Feather.
Power of Thought - A Quantum Perspective - By Kent Healy
The Universe is an Illusion, But Consciousness Isn't
Dan Winter's Video Intro to RESTORING CENTRIPETAL FORCES: The Fractal Field
This 4 part video will help you understand how the physics of the fractal winding of the electron waves in the field contains intelligence and information that connects with your consciousness while activating the life force of matter in your physical bodies and in nature.
Filmed for Melbourne TV Australia 2009-2010, Released 2012
This research by Dan Winter is another step in creating the bridge between science and spirituality to expand and empower the human knowledge base.
An update on the research involving Histones that were introduced in our course in 2007.
Non-genetic Inheritance of Longevity
Increased longevity passed down generations of worms through epigenetic changes despite unaltered genomes Dr Eva Sirinathsinghji
A fully referenced and illustrated version of this report is posted on ISIS members website. (Source link at the end of the article).
New research finds that increased life-span can be inherited in a non-genetic manner. The study  by US researchers Anne Brunet and colleagues at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, and Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, adds to the growing evidence of epigenetic inheritance that increasingly undermines the conventional idea that genes determine traits.
Epigenetic inheritance is usually described as the inheritance of a trait without inheriting any changes in the DNA sequence itself. These epigenetic changes can occur through various mechanisms including the chemical modification of DNA, RNA or proteins (commonly histone proteins that interact with, and determine the structural organisation of, DNA). More recently, other mechanisms of epigenetic changes are becoming widely recognised. Examples include RNA-editing, where RNA sequence bases are systematically altered, and alternative splicing of RNA to create different proteins, as well as RNA interference, which determines which RNA messages are cleaved or blocked from being translated into proteins (see  Epigenetic Inheritance “What Genes Remember”, SiS 41). Things are clearly a lot more complicated and dynamic than the old idea that DNA in the genome is fixed and determines all the traits of the organism in a series of linear instructions.
Numerous proteins have been implicated in controlling life-span. Among them are those that modify chromatin, a combination of DNA wrapped around histone proteins [3-5]. Deletions of certain genes that modify chromatin can lead to increased longevity.
The new work  shows that a ‘memory’ of those deletions can be passed on to descendents and increase their life-span without inheriting the actual mutation responsible for the increased longevity. This is the first evidence of epigenetic inheritance of a complex trait such as longevity.
Using the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as the model animal, the researchers deleted genes associated with a protein complex called COMPASS, which regulates a specific kind of histone protein modification, the trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3). In general, histone modifications serve as a chemical mark that influences the way DNA is packaged, and the fully methylated H3K4me3 is specifically associated with active, or ‘switched’ on genes. Altering the chromatin structure is an important determinant of gene expression, with compacted chromatin being a physical barrier to the transcriptional machinery. Deletion of the genes wdr-5, ash-2 and set-2, components of COMPASS led to reduced H3K4me3 levels, a change in gene activity, and a corresponding 20-30 % increase in the worms’ life-span.
Crucially, mating these longer-living mutant worms to normal (wild-type) worms gave rise to great-grand-offspring and even great-great-grand-offspring that no longer carried the gene deletion, but nevertheless still inherited the longer-living trait. Only after five generations following the creation of the knock-out worms (or 4 in the case of ash-2 mutations) did the worms reverted to the normal length life-span (see Figure 1).
As can be seen, short-lived, wild-type (+/+) worms have two copies of functioning COMPASS complex gene that mediates how DNA is organised and how much genes are switched on. Mutant worms with two copies of the mutant gene (-/-), generated by the researchers, lack components of the COMPASS protein complex and live longer as a result. When wild-type worms are mated with mutant worms, their offspring (F1 generation) are heterozygous (+/-) for the mutation, carrying only one copy of the COMPASS components, but still live longer. When heterozygous F1 offspring are bred to wild-type worms, their offspring (F2 generation) that are completely wild-type for the mutation (+/+), still live longer despite no longer carrying the mutation. The same longer-living phenotype persisted in F3 and F4 generations. By the F5 generation however, the longer-living phenotype was lost and the worms reverted to the normal short-lived phenotype.
So, although the genetically wild-type worms were not carrying the mutation to make them live longer, they inherited a ‘memory’ of the mutation through epigenetic marking of histone proteins that was enough to increase their life-span. Previously, it was thought that most, if not all epigenetic changes would be wiped clean in the germ cells, thus preventing the inheritance of chemical modifications and acquired traits built up in one individual’s life-time. This finding, among others, suggests that complete re-programming of epigenetic modifications does not occur, with some modifications passing down the germ line to the offspring. From an evolutionary perspective, the ability to inherit learned or acquired traits from ancestors could be beneficial, increasing the chances of survival of the children who encounter similar life experiences to their parents.
Deletion of another gene rbr-2 associated with demethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 abolished the effects of the mutations, suggesting that the results were not due to other, unrelated mutations that may occur in the experimental process.
Mechanism of action
In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, DNA is organised and compacted in the form of chromatin that is wrapped around proteins called histones. Histone modification alters the structure of chromatin and how tightly the DNA is wrapped around the histones, thereby making genes either more or less accessible to the transcription machinery responsible for gene expression. These modifications can also deter the binding of transcriptional machinery to DNA and stop transcription altogether. Further, H3K4me3 is associated with transcriptionally ‘active’ genes and not ‘silent’ or switched off genes. When the researchers depleted the levels of H3K4me3 by deleting any of the genes responsible for adding the methyl groups, increased longevity was observed, possibly through changing the expression of genes that mediate life-span. Microarray experiments, which simultaneously measure gene expression of many or all genes to give a global gene expression profile, confirmed that these mutations did indeed lead to changes in gene expression on a genome-wide scale. Even more interesting was that the changes in gene expression observed in the mutant ancestors were similar to the genetically normal longer-living descendents. Some of the genes affected have previously been implicated in longevity, development and growth.
Still not understood is whether the H3K4me3 marks themselves or downstream events are the inherited cue for longevity. The study showed that the global reduced levels of H3K4me3 found in the mutant ancestors were not passed on. It is however possible that the chromatin changes at specific gene loci were not completely reset between generations. Alternatively, the RNA or proteins of downstream mis-expressed genes involved in longevity could also be passed on via the new oocytes to the next generation.
This study highlights the importance of environmental factors in the inheritance of complex traits. Our interaction with the world could have effects well beyond our life time.
This new research is important to understand as our DNA changes with our environment, namely the energy being sent from the portals in the sun and the high intensity solar flares through 2013. It has been difficult to find new research on the histones since I published the course in 2007. Your DNA is changing and your cell memory will unlock while this is happening. The 'junk DNA' that has been dormant will be reconnected by the histones as I stated in the course. In Lak'ech, Judith Light Feather
Bruce Lipton, Cell Biologist - Healing with Thought.
Bruce Liption explains how energy heals based on the electromagnetic field, frequencies and our thoughts. He won the GIO Peace Award in 2008 for his work.
Take a look.
He is also on Google videos. This one plays his lecture - 1 hour 35 minutes.
New site on Russian Wave Genetics fully explains the following discoveries.
This site has all the articles and two scientific papers.
Russian DNA Discoveries
In addition, there is evidence for a whole new type of medicine in which DNA can be influenced and reprogrammed by words and frequencies WITHOUT cutting out and replacing single genes
By Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf
DNA Can Be Influenced And Reprogrammed By Words And Frequencies Russian DNA Discoveries.
The human DNA is a biological Internet and superior in many aspects to the artificial one. The latest Russian scientific research directly or indirectly explains phenomena such as clairvoyance, intuition, spontaneous and remote acts of healing, self healing, affirmation techniques, unusual light, auras around people, namely spiritual masters, the minds influence on weather patterns and much more.
In addition, there is evidence for a whole new type of medicine in which DNA can be influenced and reprogrammed by words and frequencies WITHOUT cutting out and replacing single genes.
Only 10% of our DNA is being used for building proteins. It is this subset of DNA that is of interest to western researchers and is being examined and categorized. The other 90% are considered "junk DNA. The Russian researchers, however, convinced that nature was not dumb, joined linguists and geneticists in a venture to explore those 90% of "junk DNA". Their results, findings and conclusions are simply revolutionary!
According to them, our DNA is not only responsible for the construction of our body but also serves as data storage and communication. The Russian linguists found that the genetic code, especially in the apparently useless 90%, follows the same rules as all our human languages. To this end they compared the rules of syntax (the way in which words are put together to form phrases and sentences), semantics (the study of meaning in language forms) and the basic rules of grammar.
They found that the alkalines of our DNA follow regular grammar and do have set rules just like our languages. So human languages did not appear coincidentally but are a reflection of our inherent DNA.
The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues also explored the vibrational behavior of the DNA. [For the sake of brevity I will give only a summary here. For further exploration please refer to the appendix at the end of this article.]
The bottom line was: "Living chromosomes function just like solitonic/holographic computers using the endogenous DNA laser radiation."
This means that they managed, for example, to modulate certain frequency patterns onto a laser ray and with it influenced the DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself. Since the basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and of language (as explained earlier) are of the same structure, no DNA decoding is necessary. One can simply use words and sentences of the human language!
This, too, was experimentally proven! Living DNA substance (in living tissue, not in vitro) will always react to language-modulated laser rays and even to radio waves, if the proper frequencies are being used. This finally and scientifically explains why affirmations, autogenous training, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on humans and their bodies.
It is entirely normal and natural for our DNA to react to language. While western researcher cut single genes from the DNA strands and insert them elsewhere, the Russians enthusiastically worked on devices that can influence the cellular metabolism through suitable modulated radio and light frequencies and thus repair genetic defects.
Garjajev';s research group succeeded in proving that with this method chromosomes damaged by x-rays for example can be repaired. They even captured information patterns of a particular DNA and transmitted it onto another, thus reprogramming cells to another genome. So they successfully transformed, for example, frog embryos to salamander embryos simply by transmitting the DNA information patterns!
This way the entire information was transmitted without any of the side effects or disharmonies encountered when cutting out and re- introducing single genes from the DNA. This represents an unbelievable, world-transforming revolution and sensation! All this by simply applying vibration and language instead of the archaic cutting- out procedure! This experiment points to the immense power of wave genetics, which obviously has a greater influence on the formation of organisms than the biochemical processes of alkaline sequences.
Esoteric and spiritual teachers have known for ages that our body is programmable by language, words and thought. This has now been scientifically proven and explained. Of course the frequency has to be correct. And this is why not everybody is equally successful or can do it with always the same strength. The individual person must work on the inner processes and maturity in order to establish a conscious communication with the DNA. The Russian researchers work on a method that is not dependent on these factors but will ALWAYS work, provided one uses the correct frequency.
But the higher developed an individual';s consciousness is, the less need is there for any type of device! One can achieve these results by oneself, and science will finally stop laughing at such ideas and will confirm and explain the results. And it doesn';t end there. The Russian scientists also found out that our DNA can cause disturbing patterns in the vacuum, thus producing magnetized wormholes! Wormholes are the microscopic equivalents of the so-called Einstein-Rosen bridges in the vicinity of black holes (left by burned-out stars).
These are tunnel connections between entirely different areas in the universe through which information can be transmitted outside of space and time. The DNA attracts these bits of information and passes them on to our consciousness. This process of hypercommunication is most effective in a state of relaxation.
Stress, worries or a hyperactive intellect prevent successful hypercommunication or the information will be totally distorted and useless. In nature, hypercommunication has been successfully applied for millions of years. The organized flow of life in insect states proves this dramatically. Modern man knows it only on a much more subtle level as "intuition". But we, too, can regain full use of it.
An example from Nature: When a queen ant is spatially separated from her colony, building still continues fervently and according to plan. If the queen is killed, however, all work in the colony stops. No ant knows what to do. Apparently the queen sends the "building plans" also from far away via the group consciousness of her subjects. She can be as far away as she wants, as long as she is alive. In man hypercommunication is most often encountered when one suddenly gains access to information that is outside one';s knowledge base.
Such hypercommunication is then experienced as inspiration or intuition. The Italian composer Giuseppe Tartini for instance dreamt one night that a devil sat at his bedside playing the violin. The next morning Tartini was able to note down the piece exactly from memory, he called it the Devil';s Trill Sonata.
For years, a 42-year old male nurse dreamt of a situation in which he was hooked up to a kind of knowledge CD-ROM. Verifiable knowledge from all imaginable fields was then transmitted to him that he was able to recall in the morning. There was such a flood of information that it seemed a whole encyclopedia was transmitted at night. The majority of facts were outside his personal knowledge base and reached technical details about which he knew absolutely nothing.
When hypercommunication occurs, one can observe in the DNA as well as in the human being special phenomena. The Russian scientists irradiated DNA samples with laser light. On screen a typical wave pattern was formed. When they removed the DNA sample, the wave pattern did not disappear, it remained. Many control experiments showed that the pattern still came from the removed sample, whose energy field apparently remained by itself. This effect is now called phantom DNA effect.
It is surmised that energy from outside of space and time still flows through the activated wormholes after the DNA was removed. The side effect encountered most often in hypercommunication also in human beings are inexplicable electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the persons concerned.
Electronic devices like CD players and the like can be irritated and cease to function for hours. When the electromagnetic field slowly dissipates, the devices function normally again. Many healers and psychics know this effect from their work. The better the atmosphere and the energy, the more frustrating it is that the recording device stops functioning and recording exactly at that moment.
And repeated switching on and off after the session does not restore function yet, but next morning all is back to normal. Perhaps this is reassuring to read for many, as it has nothing to do with them being technically inept, it means they are good at hypercommunication.
In their book "Vernetzte Intelligenz" (Networked Intelligence), Grazyna Gosar and Franz Bludorf explain these connections precisely and clearly.
The authors also quote sources presuming that in earlier times humanity had been, just like the animals, very strongly connected to the group consciousness and acted as a group. To develop and experience individuality we humans however had to forget hypercommunication almost completely.
Now that we are fairly stable in our individual consciousness, we can create a new form of group consciousness, namely one, in which we attain access to all information via our DNA without being forced or remotely controlled about what to do with that information. We now know that just as on the internet our DNA can feed its proper data into the network, can call up data from the network and can establish contact with other participants in the network.
Remote healing, telepathy or "remote sensing" about the state of relatives etc. can thus be explained. Some animals know also from afar when their owners plan to return home. That can be freshly interpreted and explained via the concepts of group consciousness and hypercommunication. Any collective consciousness cannot be sensibly used over any period of time without a distinctive individuality. Otherwise we would revert to a primitive herd instinct that is easily manipulated.
Hypercommunication in the new millennium means something quite different: Researchers think that if humans with full individuality would regain group consciousness, they would have a god-like power to create, alter and shape things on Earth! AND humanity is collectively moving toward such a group consciousness of the new kind.
Fifty percent of today';s children will be problem children as soon as the go to school. The system lumps everyone together and demands adjustment. But the individuality of today';s children is so strong that that they refuse this adjustment and giving up their idiosyncrasies in the most diverse ways.
At the same time more and more clairvoyant children are born [see the book "China';s Indigo Children" by Paul Dong or the chapter about Indigos in my book "Nutze die taeglichen Wunder"(Make Use of the Daily Wonders)]. Something in those children is striving more and more towards the group consciousness of the new kind, and it will no longer be suppressed! .
As a rule weather, for example, is rather difficult to influence by a single individual. But it may be influenced by a group consciousness (nothing new to some tribes doing it in their rain dances). Weather is strongly influenced by Earth resonance frequencies, the so-called Schumann frequencies.
But those same frequencies are also produced in our brains, and when many people synchronize their thinking or individuals (spiritual masters, for instance) focus their thoughts in a laser-like fashion, then it is scientifically speaking not at all surprising if they can thus influence weather.
Researchers in group consciousness have formulated the theory of Type I civilizations. A humanity that developed a group consciousness of the new kind would have neither environmental problems nor scarcity of energy. For if it were to use its mental power as a unified civilization, it would have control of the energies of its home planet as a natural consequence. And that includes all natural catastrophes!!! A theoretical Type II civilization would even be able to control all energies of their home galaxy.
In my book "Nutze die taeglichen Wunder", I have described an example of this: Whenever a great many people focus their attention or consciousness on something similar like Christmas time, football world championship or the funeral of Lady Diana in England then certain random number generators in computers start to deliver ordered numbers instead of the random ones. An ordered group consciousness creates order in its whole surroundings!!!
When a great number of people get together very closely, potentials of violence also dissolve. It looks as if here, too, a kind of humanitarian consciousness of all humanity is created. At the Love Parade, for example, where every year about one million of young people congregate, there has never been any brutal riots as they occur for instance at sports events. The name of the event alone is not seen as the cause here. The result of an analysis indicated rather that the number of people was TOO GREAT to allow a tipping over to violence.
To come back to the DNA: It apparently is also an organic superconductor that can work at normal body temperature. Artificial superconductors require extremely low temperatures of between 200 and 140';C to function.
As one recently learned, all superconductors are able to store light and thus information. This is a further explanation of how the DNA can store information. There is another phenomenon linked to DNA and wormholes. Normally, these super small wormholes are highly unstable and are maintained only for the tiniest fractions of a second.
Under certain conditions (read about it in the Fosar/Bludorf book above) stable wormholes can organize themselves which then form distinctive vacuum domains in which, for example, gravity can transform into electricity. Vacuum domains are self-radiant balls of ionized gas that contain considerable amounts of energy.
There are regions in Russia where such radiant balls appear very often. Following the ensuing confusion the Russians started massive research programs leading finally to some of the discoveries mentions above. Many people know vacuum domains as shiny balls in the sky. The attentive look at them in wonder and ask themselves, what they could be. I thought once: "Hello up there. If you happen to be a UFO, fly in a triangle." And suddenly, the light balls moved in a triangle. Or they shot across the sky like ice hockey pucks. They accelerated from zero to crazy speeds while sliding gently across the sky.
One is left gawking and I have, as many others, too, thought them to be UFOs. Friendly ones, apparently, as they flew in triangles just to please me. Now the Russians found in the regions where vacuum domains appear often that sometimes fly as balls of light from the ground upwards into the sky, that these balls can be guided by thought. One has found out since that vacuum domains emit waves of low frequency as they are also produced in our brains. And because of this similarity of waves they are able to react to our thoughts.
To run excitedly into one that is on ground level might not be such a great idea, because those balls of light can contain immense energies and are able to mutate our genes. They can, they don't necessarily have to, one has to say. For many spiritual teachers also produce such visible balls or columns of light in deep meditation or during energy work which trigger decidedly pleasant feelings and do not cause any harm. Apparently this is also dependent on some inner order and on the quality and provenance of the vacuum domain.
There are some spiritual teachers (the young Englishman Ananda, for example) with whom nothing is seen at first, but when one tries to take a photograph while they sit and speak or meditate in hypercommunication, one gets only a picture of a white cloud on a chair. In some Earth healing projects such light effects also appear on photographs.
Simply put, these phenomena have to do with gravity and anti-gravity forces that are also exactly described in the book and with ever more stable wormholes and hyper-communication and thus with energies from outside our time and space structure. Earlier generations that got in contact with such hypercommunication experiences and visible vacuum domains were convinced that an angel had appeared before them.
And we cannot be too sure to what forms of consciousness we can get access when using hypercommunication. Not having scientific proof for their actual existence (people having had such experiences do NOT all suffer from hallucinations) does not mean that there is no metaphysical background to it. We have simply made another giant step towards understanding our reality.
Official science also knows of gravity anomalies on Earth (that contribute to the formation of vacuum domains), but only of ones of below one percent. But recently gravity anomalies have been found of between three and four percent. One of these places is Rocca di Papa, south of Rome (exact location in the book "Vernetzte Intelligenz" plus several others). Round objects of all kinds, from balls to full buses, roll uphill. But the stretch in Rocca di Papa is rather short, and defying logic sceptics still flee to the theory of optical illusion (which it cannot be due to several features of the location).
All informations are from the book "Vernetzte Intelligenz" von Grazyna Fosar und Franz Bludorf, ISBN 3930243237, summarized and commented by Baerbel. The book is unfortunately only available in German so far. You can reach the authors here:
; Transmitted by Vitae Bergman [www.ryze.com/view.php?who=vitaeb]
Message from the Council of Knowledge
In May 2006, I was contacted by the Council of Knowledge that consists of 12 Masters from all cultures. They stated that they had changed the portals in the Sun so that mankind could be activated to higher frequencies and meet the goal of vibrating faster to experience the many dimensions of reality and re-remember their history.
Therefore, when this article came from NASA, it validated the information that was received by the Council and I share it with you so that understanding the Universal Mind of Source in our growth will help you on your journey. Everything we receive will be from the Universe and the Earth, which contain all knowledge of our past and energy activations for our future.
Magnetic Portals Connect Sun and Earth
(Left)An artist's concept of Earth's magnetic field connecting to the sun's--
a.k.a. a "flux transfer event"--with a spacecraft on hand to measure particles and fields.
Oct. 30, 2008: During the time it takes you to read this article, something will happen high overhead that until recently many scientists didn't believe in. A magnetic portal will open, linking Earth to the sun 93 million miles away. Tons of high-energy particles may flow through the opening before it closes again, around the time you reach the end of the page.
"It's called a flux transfer event or 'FTE,'" says space physicist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. "Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn't exist, but now the evidence is incontrovertible."
Indeed, today Sibeck is telling an international assembly of space physicists at the 2008 Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, that FTEs are not just common, but possibly twice as common as anyone had ever imagined.
Researchers have long known that the Earth and sun must be connected. Earth's magnetosphere (the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet) is filled with particles from the sun that arrive via the solar wind and penetrate the planet's magnetic defenses. They enter by following magnetic field lines that can be traced from terra firma all the way back to the sun's atmosphere.
"We used to think the connection was permanent and that solar wind could trickle into the near-Earth environment anytime the wind was active," says Sibeck. "We were wrong. The connections are not steady at all. They are often brief, bursty and very dynamic."
Several speakers at the Workshop have outlined how FTEs form: On the dayside of Earth (the side closest to the sun), Earth's magnetic field presses against the sun's magnetic field. Approximately every eight minutes, the two fields briefly merge or "reconnect," forming a portal through which particles can flow. The portal takes the form of a magnetic cylinder about as wide as Earth. The European Space Agency's fleet of four Cluster spacecraft and NASA's five THEMIS probes have flown through and surrounded these cylinders, measuring their dimensions and sensing the particles that shoot through. "They're real," says Sibeck.
Now that Cluster and THEMIS have directly sampled FTEs, theorists can use those measurements to simulate FTEs in their computers and predict how they might behave. Space physicist Jimmy Raeder of the University of New Hampshire presented one such simulation at the Workshop. He told his colleagues that the cylindrical portals tend to form above Earth's equator and then roll over Earth's winter pole. In December, FTEs roll over the north pole; in July they roll over the south pole.
A "magnetic portal" or FTE mapped in cross-section by NASA's fleet of THEMIS spacecraft.
Sibeck believes this is happening twice as often as previously thought. "I think there are two varieties of FTEs: active and passive." Active FTEs are magnetic cylinders that allow particles to flow through rather easily; they are important conduits of energy for Earth's magnetosphere. Passive FTEs are magnetic cylinders that offer more resistance; their internal structure does not admit such an easy flow of particles and fields. (For experts: Active FTEs form at equatorial latitudes when the IMF tips south; passive FTEs form at higher latitudes when the IMF tips north.) Sibeck has calculated the properties of passive FTEs and he is encouraging his colleagues to hunt for signs of them in data from THEMIS and Cluster. "Passive FTEs may not be very important, but until we know more about them we can't be sure."
There are many unanswered questions: Why do the portals form every 8 minutes? How do magnetic fields inside the cylinder twist and coil? "We're doing some heavy thinking about this at the Workshop," says Sibeck.
Meanwhile, high above your head, a new portal is opening, connecting your planet to the sun.
Cosmic Rays Hit Space Age High
September 29, 2009: Planning a trip to Mars? Take plenty of shielding. According to sensors on NASA's ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) spacecraft, galactic cosmic rays have just hit a Space Age high.
"In 2009, cosmic ray intensities have increased 19% beyond anything we've seen in the past 50 years," says Richard Mewaldt of Caltech. "The increase is significant, and it could mean we need to re-think how much radiation shielding astronauts take with them on deep-space missions."
Above: Energetic iron nuclei counted by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer on NASA's ACE spacecraft reveal that cosmic ray levels have jumped 19% above the previous Space Age high.
The cause of the surge is solar minimum, a deep lull in solar activity that began around 2007 and continues today. Researchers have long known that cosmic rays go up when solar activity goes down. Right now solar activity is as weak as it has been in modern times, setting the stage for what Mewaldt calls "a perfect storm of cosmic rays."
"We're experiencing the deepest solar minimum in nearly a century," says Dean Pesnell of the Goddard Space Flight Center, "so it is no surprise that cosmic rays are at record levels for the Space Age."
Galactic cosmic rays come from outside the solar system. They are subatomic particles--mainly protons but also some heavy nuclei--accelerated to almost light speed by distant supernova explosions. Cosmic rays cause "air showers" of secondary particles when they hit Earth's atmosphere; they pose a health hazard to astronauts; and a single cosmic ray can disable a satellite if it hits an unlucky integrated circuit.
The sun's magnetic field is our first line of defense against these highly-charged, energetic particles. The entire solar system from Mercury to Pluto and beyond is surrounded by a bubble of magnetism called "the heliosphere." It springs from the sun's inner magnetic dynamo and is inflated to gargantuan proportions by the solar wind. When a cosmic ray tries to enter the solar system, it must fight through the heliosphere's outer layers; and if it makes it inside, there is a thicket of magnetic fields waiting to scatter and deflect the intruder.
An artist's concept of the heliosphere, a magnetic bubble that partially protects the solar system from cosmic rays.
"At times of low solar activity, this natural shielding is weakened, and more cosmic rays are able to reach the inner solar system," explains Pesnell.
Mewaldt lists three aspects of the current solar minimum that are combining to create the perfect storm:
1. The sun's magnetic field is weak. "There has been a sharp decline in the sun's interplanetary magnetic field down to 4 nT (nanoTesla) from typical values of 6 to 8 nT," he says. "This record-low interplanetary magnetic field undoubtedly contributes to the record-high cosmic ray fluxes."
2. The solar wind is flagging. "Measurements by the Ulysses spacecraft show that solar wind pressure is at a 50-year low," he continues, "so the magnetic bubble that protects the solar system is not being inflated as much as usual." A smaller bubble gives cosmic rays a shorter-shot into the solar system. Once a cosmic ray enters the solar system, it must "swim upstream" against the solar wind. Solar wind speeds have dropped to very low levels in 2008 and 2009, making it easier than usual for a cosmic ray to proceed.
3. The current sheet is flattening. Imagine the sun wearing a ballerina's skirt as wide as the entire solar system with an electrical current flowing along its wavy folds. It's real, and it's called the "heliospheric current sheet," a vast transition zone where the polarity of the sun's magnetic field changes from plus to minus. The current sheet is important because cosmic rays are guided by its folds. Lately, the current sheet has been flattening itself out, allowing cosmic rays more direct access to the inner solar system.
The heliospheric current sheet is shaped like a ballerina's skirt. Image credit: J. R. Jokipii and B. Thomas, Astrophysical Journal 243, 1115, 1981.
"If the flattening continues, we could see cosmic ray fluxes jump all the way to 30% above previous Space Age highs," predicts Mewaldt.
Earth is in no great peril. Our planet's atmosphere and magnetic field provide some defense against the extra cosmic rays. Indeed, we've experienced much worse in the past. Hundreds of years ago, cosmic ray fluxes were at least 200% to 300% higher than anything measured during the Space Age. Researchers know this because when cosmic rays hit the atmosphere, they produce an isotope of beryllium, 10Be, which is preserved in polar ice. By examining ice cores, it is possible to estimate cosmic ray fluxes more than a thousand years into the past. Even with the recent surge, cosmic rays today are much weaker than they have been at times in the past millennium. [data]
"The space era has so far experienced a time of relatively low cosmic ray activity," says Mewaldt. "We may now be returning to levels typical of past centuries."
NASA spacecraft will continue to monitor the situation as solar minimum unfolds. Stay tuned for updates.
Giant Ribbon Discovered at the Edge of the Solar System
NASA's IBEX spacecraft has discovered a vast, glowing ribbon at the edge of the solar system. One mission scientist calls the discovery "shocking" and says theorists are "working like crazy" to explain the finding.
October 15, 2009: For years, researchers have known that the solar system is surrounded by a vast bubble of magnetism. Called the "heliosphere," it springs from the sun and extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto, providing a first line of defense against cosmic rays and interstellar clouds that try to enter our local space. Although the heliosphere is huge and literally fills the sky, it emits no light and no one has actually seen it.
NASA's IBEX (Interstellar Boundary Explorer) spacecraft has made the first all-sky maps of the heliosphere and the results have taken researchers by surprise. The maps are bisected by a bright, winding ribbon of unknown origin:
Above: IBEX's all-sky map of energetic neutral atom emission reveals a bright filament of unknown origin. V1 and V2 indicate the positions of the Voyager spacecraft.
"This is a shocking new result," says IBEX principal investigator Dave McComas of the Southwest Research Institute. "We had no idea this ribbon existed--or what has created it. Our previous ideas about the outer heliosphere are going to have to be revised."
Although the ribbon looks bright in the IBEX map, it does not glow in any conventional sense. The ribbon is not a source of light, but rather a source of particles--energetic neutral atoms or ENAs. IBEX's sensors can detect these particles, which are produced in the outer heliosphere where the solar wind begins to slow down and mix with interstellar matter from outside the solar system.
"This ribbon winds between the two Voyager spacecraft and was not observed by either of them," notes Eric Christian, IBEX deputy mission scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "It's like having two weather stations, but missing the big storm that runs between them."
Unlike the Voyager spacecraft, which have spent decades traveling to the edge of the solar system for in situ sampling, IBEX stayed closer to home. It is in Earth orbit, spinning around and collecting ENAs from all directions. This gives IBEX the unique "big picture" view necessary to discover something as vast as the ribbon.
The ribbon also has fine structure--small filaments of ENA emission no more than a few degrees wide. The fine structure is as much of a mystery as the ribbon itself, researchers say.
One important clue: The ribbon runs perpendicular to the direction of the galactic magnetic field just outside the heliosphere, as shown in the illustration at right.
"That cannot be a coincidence," says McComas. But what does it mean? No one knows. "We're missing some fundamental aspect of the interaction between the heliosphere and the rest of the galaxy. Theorists are working like crazy to figure this out."
Understanding the physics of the outer heliosphere is important because of the role it plays in shielding the solar system against cosmic rays. The heliosphere's size and shape are key factors in determining its shielding power and, thus, how many cosmic rays reach Earth. For the first time, IBEX is revealing how the heliosphere might respond when it bumps into interstellar clouds and galactic magnetic fields.
"IBEX is now making a second all-sky map, and we're eager to see if the ribbon is changing," says McComas. "Watching the ribbon evolve--if it is evolving--could yield more clues."
Stay tuned for updates.
A Big Surprise from the Edge of the Solar System
June 9, 2011: NASA's Voyager probes are truly going where no one has gone before. Gliding silently toward the stars, 9 billion miles from Earth, they are beaming back news from the most distant, unexplored reaches of the solar system.
Mission scientists say the probes have just sent back some very big news indeed.
It's bubbly out there.
"The Voyager probes appear to have entered a strange realm of frothy magnetic bubbles," says astronomer Merav Opher of Boston University. "This is very surprising."
According to computer models, the bubbles are large, about 100 million miles wide, so it would take the speedy probes weeks to cross just one of them. Voyager 1 entered the "foam-zone" around 2007, and Voyager 2 followed about a year later. At first researchers didn't understand what the Voyagers were sensing--but now they have a good idea.